For example, if you are competing with another new RN who, An Introduction to Nursing and the Role of the Licensed Practical Nurse, Legal, Ethical, Cultural and Ethnic Aspects of Nursing, Assessments: The Health History and the Physical Examination, Growth and Development Along the Lifespan, Basic Patient Needs: Fluids and Electrolytes, Rehabilitation and Restorative Care Nursing, The roles and responsibilities of other members of the interdisciplinary healthcare team, The nursing process including assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and evaluation, Applying critical thinking skills to the nursing process and the care of patients, Therapeutic verbal and non verbal communication techniques, Factors that affect the communication process, Overcoming barriers to therapeutic communication, Standards of nursing care and state nurse practice acts, Abuse and neglect of children, elders and spouses, The American Nurses’ Association Code of Ethics, Commonly occurring ethical and bioethical issues in healthcare, Assessing the patient’s cultural and ethnical needs, Diversity, transcultural nursing and cultural competence, Modifying and providing culturally and ethnicity sensitive care, Applying the nursing process to legal, ethical, cultural and ethnical aspects of care, Tissues: Structures, functions and types of tissue, Membranes: Structures, functions and types of membranes, Organs and systems: Structures, functions and examples of bodily systems, Conducting the health history interview process, Physical assessment techniques: Inspection, auscultation, palpation and percussion, Performing a complete and systematic head to toe physical assessment, Taking and interpreting vital signs for all age groups throughout the life span, Applying the nursing process to patient assessment, Acceptable and unacceptable abbreviations, Methods of documentation: Traditional, problem oriented, SOAP, focus charting, charting by exception and critical/clinical pathway methods of documentation, Documentation and charting forms: Graphic charts, Kardex, patient assessment, medication administration records, progress notes, falls screening and skin assessment forms, How nurses document in a complete, accurate and timely manner in the acute care and long term care settings, The age groups along the continuum of life, Psychosocial development: Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud and other theorists, Cognitive development: Jean Piaget and other theorists, Health promotion activities when caring for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child, adolescent, early adulthood, middle aged adults and the elderly patient, Applying the nursing process to the growth and development characteristics and needs across the life span, National Patient Safety Goals for acute and long term care, Sentinel events, root cause analysis and corrective/preventive actions, Healthcare provider errors and mistakes: Medication errors, wrong site surgery, inaccurate patient identification, sharps injuries and inadequate patient monitoring, Basic safety precautions: Patient identification, preventing distractions and other measures, Falls and falls prevention: Environmental and patient related risk factors, falls risk screening tools and preventive measures, A restraint free environment: Alternatives to the use of restraints, The correct application of multiple types of restraints and the monitoring of the patient who is restrained, Environmental hazards: Wet floors, oxygen and other medical gases, poor lighting, radiation, latex, accidental poisonings, suffocation, patient elopement, infant abduction and mercury, Preventing and managing internal disasters: Fire, smoke, bomb threats, workplace violence, utility failures, communication breakdowns, terrorism and bioteriorism, Managing external disasters: Terrorism, bioterrorism, earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes, airplane and other major transportation accidents, Body mechanics: Purpose, correct bodily alignment, the line of gravity, the center of gravity and the base of support, Applying the nursing process to the safety of the patients, visitors, staff members and oneself, The chain of infection: The infectious agent, the reservoir, the portal of exit, the mode of transmission, the portal of entry and the host, Microbiology: Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and protozoa, Patient related risk factors associated with infections, Treatment related risk factors associated with infections such as urinary catheters and intravenous fluid lines, The local and systemic signs and symptoms of infection and inflammation, Immunity: Active, passive, natural and artificial, Standard precautions, handwashing and personal protective equipment, Special mode of transmission isolation procedures: Contact, airborne and droplet contact precautions, Managing and disposing of biohazards wastes including sharps, Applying the nursing process to infections and infection control, Mathematics review: Fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, percents, ratios and proportion, Measurement systems: The metric, apothecary and household measurement systems, The calculation of dosages: The ratio/proportion and dimensional analysis methods of calculation, Medication classifications and the indications for each, Commonly occurring contraindications, side effects and adverse effects including life threatening anaphylaxis, Routes of medication administration and age related modifications of routes and forms for the pediatric and elderly populations, Complete and acceptable physician medication orders, The “Six Rights of Medication Administration”: The right patient, the right medication, the right dosage, the right time, the right route and the right documentation, Age specific considerations for the pediatric and elderly populations such as dosage and contraindications, Applying the nursing process to medications and medication administration, Factors that impact on the pain experience, Pain assessment scales for adults, infants and children, Pain management: Invasive and noninvasive pain management, Pain management medications and alternative techniques, Factors that negatively impact on sleep and rest, Applying the nursing process to the patient’s need for comfort, sleep and rest, Baths: Therapeutic and nontherapeutic baths, The procedures for complete and partial bed baths, Skin care: Assessment, cleansing and back rubs, Hand, foot and nail care in addition to the needs of the diabetic patient, Perineal care: Males, females and care of an indwelling urinary catheter, Special procedures for cleansing the eyes, ears and nose, Beds: Medical asepsis, types of beds and procedures for each, Environmental hygiene: Cleanliness of the environment and patient care equipment, Applying the nursing process to the patient’s hygiene needs, The hazards of immobility that impact on the patient’s musculoskeletal, respiratory, circulatory, urinary, metabolic, integumentary and gastrointestinal systems, Levels of activity: Complete bed rest, bed rest with commode privileges, bed rest with bathroom privileges, out of bed to the chair and independent out of bed activity, Patient positions and alignment: Fowler’s, supine, prone, lateral, Sims’, orthopneic, Trendelenburg and genupectoral positions, Patient transfers in bed, from the bed to the chair and the chair to the bed, Joint movements and joint related terminology, Active, passive and active assist range of motion exercises, Ambulation assistive devices and their uses, Applying the nursing process to the mobility needs of the patient, Fluid compartments: Intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, Factors that impact on the intake and output of the patient, Movement of fluids and electrolytes between the fluid compartments: Active transport and passive transport (diffusion, osmosis and filtration), The causes, treatments and signs and symptoms of electrolyte excesses and deficits, Acid-base imbalances, their causes and their treatments: Respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis, Applying the nursing process to the fluid and electrolyte needs of the patient, Applying the nursing process to the care of the adult with a medical/surgical disorder or disease, The assessment of the patient for emergency medical crises, Calling for and obtaining help during an emergency medical crisis, Cardiopulmonary arrest: Performing the ABCs of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for neonates, infants, children and adults, The assessment and treatment of shock: Cardiogenic shock, neurogenic shock, hypovolemic shock, septic shock, psychogenic shock and anaphylactic shock, Hemorrhage: The assessment and treatment of arterial bleeding, venous bleeding, capillary bleeding and external bleeding, The priorities of care and treatment for the trauma patient, Types of traumatic wounds: Open wounds and closed wounds, Aspiration of foreign bodies: Populations at risk for aspiration of foreign bodies in the throat, ears and nose, The signs, symptoms and treatment of complete and partial airway obstructions for the infant, child, adult, conscious and unconscious patient, The assessment and treatment of burns: Shallow, partial thickness, deep, partial thickness and full thickness burns and the Rule of Nines, Accidental poisonings: Populations at risk, inhaled, ingested, injected and absorbed poisons, The treatment of accidental poisonings and the role of the Poison Control Centers, The signs, symptoms and treatments for various substance abuse emergencies, Types of skeletal fractures and their treatments: Compound, closed, greenstick, comminuted, spiral, impacted, compressed and depressed fractures, Spinal cord injuries: Assessment and care, Agents of terrorism and/or bioterrorism: Pathogens, nuclear explosion, blasts and chemicals, The treatment of the adverse effects of terrorism and bioterrorism according to the agent, Applying the nursing process to the management of all kinds of emergencies, Factors that impact on the surgical process: Age, illness, nutritional status, psychological status, socioeconomic status and medications that are taken by the patient, The preoperative phase of the perioperative process: Assessments, patient/family teaching, informed consent, laboratory and other diagnostic testing, respiratory coughing, deep breathing and splinting exercises, Completing a thorough and accurate preoperative checklist, Anesthesia: General, regional, local and conscious sedation, Patient identification and the prevention of wrong patient and wrong site surgery, Handling of sharps in the operating room using a “neutral zone”, The intraoperative phase of the perioperative process: Patient positioning, the role and responsibilities of the scrub nurse and the circulating nurse, The postoperative phase of the perioperative process: The role and responsibilities of the nurse during the immediate and later postoperative stages, Applying the nursing process to the care of patients during the perioperative process, Psychological defense mechanisms, their purpose, signs and symptoms, Stress and anxiety, its effects on mental functioning and stress management techniques, Types of psychiatric/mental health disorders: Organic disorders, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, mood disorders, psychogenic disorders and thought process disorders, Organic mental disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for delirium and dementia, Eating disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for anorexia and bulimia nervosa, Anxiety disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for phobias, obsessive-compulsive and posttraumatic stress disorders, Personality disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for paranoid, borderline, antisocial, abusive and dependent personality disorders, Mood disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for depression, bipolar and cyclothymic disorders, Psychogenic disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for psychosomatic and somatoform disorders, Thought process disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for schizophrenia, The stages and characteristics of addiction and dependence, Addictive disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for illicit drug and alcohol abuse/addiction, Psychiatric/mental health interventions: Therapeutic relationships, a therapeutic milieu, psychotherapy, cognitive/behavioral therapy, electroconvulsive therapy and medications, Psychotropic medications, indications, side effects and nursing implications, Applying the nursing process to the psychiatric and mental health needs of patients, Factors that impact on the patient’s grief and loss experiences, Theories of grief and loss: Kubler-Ross, Bowlby, Worden and others, Addressing the physical needs of the patient and significant others at the end of life, Managing the psychological needs of the patient and significant others at the end of life, Incorporating the social, cultural and spiritual aspects of care and support to the patient and significant others at the end of life, The legal and ethical issues relating to the end of life: Advance directives, do not resuscitate (DNR) orders, healthcare surrogacy and proxy, euthanasia, physician assisted suicide, organ donations, pain relief even if it hastens death and patient rights at the end of life, Hospice care: Curative vs. palliative care, hospice settings, the members of the hospice team and the goals of hospice care, Palliative care measures and interventions, Applying the nursing process to loss, grief, hospice care and the perideath process, The definitions of and the differences between rehabilitation and restorative care, The indications for and the goals of rehabilitation and restorative nursing care, The roles and responsibilities of the members of the rehabilitation and restorative care teams, Pediatric, adult, gerontological and mental health rehabilitation/restorative care, Disabling disorders: Spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular accidents, post traumatic stress disorder and polytrauma, Applying the nursing process to the needs of the patient in need of restorative and rehabilitation nursing services, The anatomy and physiology of pregnancy: Fertilization, implantation and fetal development, Embryonic development: The fetal membranes, amniotic fluid, the placenta, the umbilical cord, Fetal growth and development during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and gestation, Fetal assessment: The fetal heart, the use of ultrasonography, fundal height, chorionic villus sampling, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, amniocentesis, stress testing and the biophysical profile, Maternal anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy, The presumptive, probable and positive signs of pregnancy and the estimated date of delivery, The pregnancy and childbirth plan: Obstetricians, midwives, birthing settings and child birth preparation classes, The complications of pregnancy, signs, symptoms and treatment: Ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, molar pregnancy, incompetent cervix, heyperemesis gravidarum, abruptio placentae, placenta previa, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, disseminated intravascular coagulation, HELLP syndrome, TORCH, thrombophlebitis, multiple gestations, hemorrhage and age related complications, Applying the nursing process to the antepartal period of time, The onset of labor, signs of impending labor and differentiating between false and true labor, The processes of labor: The passenger, the passage, the powers, the maternal psyche and the maternal position, The stages of labor and the components of each, Fetal status and assessments during labor, Fetal heart assessments and interventions: Tachycardia, bradycardia, variability and decelerations, Medications and analgesia used during labor, Applying the nursing process to the labor and delivery process, Neonatal complications, signs, symptoms and treatment:: Preterm and post term neonates, hemolytic disorders, small and large for gestational age and Rh incompatibility, Applying the nursing process to the care of the neonate and mother during the post postpartum period of time, Family centered care and the care of the pediatric patient, Factors and conditions that affect growth and development among pediatric patients, The physical assessment of the pediatric patient from the neonate to the adolescent:  Physical growth, vital signs and changes in the findings of the head to toe physical assessment, Age related needs and communication with the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child and adolescent during hospitalization and when receiving healthcare services, Age specific pain assessment and pain management, Age related fears and the concept of death, Nutritional needs of the pediatric patient, Safety needs and the prevention of accidents among the pediatric population, The administration of medications to the pediatric client and modifications of the dosage, route and intramuscular sites for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child and adolescent, Health promotion interventions for the pediatric population according to their age and developmental status, The diagnosis, signs, symptoms and treatment of commonly occurring pediatric diseases and disorders: Communicable diseases and those affecting the integumentary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, endocrine, reproductive, sensory, neurological and immune systems, Applying the nursing process to the care of the pediatric client, Healthy aging: Debunking myths about aging, theories relating to the aging process, wellness and health promotion interventions for the aging population, The normal changes of the aging process: The integumentary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, endocrine, reproductive, sensory, neurological and immune systems, Settings of care: The home, acute care, assisted living, long term care facilities and adult day care centers, Psychosocial needs: Stressors, lower socioeconomic status, depression, loss, grief and the end of life, Safety and security needs: Falls, other accidents and elder abuse and neglect, Medication administration considerations for the elderly population and polypharmacy, Applying the nursing process to the care of the gerontological patient, Basic intravenous therapy terms and terminology: Intravenous therapy, peripheral IV therapy, central line IV therapy, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic and osmolarity, Review of the anatomy and physiology of the veins, The advantages and disadvantages of intravenous therapy, The complications of intravenous therapy: The prevention of, signs, symptoms and treatment for Infection, infiltration, extravasation, phlebitis, occlusions, embolus and hypersensitivity to intravenous medications, Intravenous catheters: The characteristics, uses and nursing implications for peripheral, midline peripheral, peripherally inserted central and central venous catheters, Intravenous tubings: Primary tubing, secondary IV tubing and piggybacks, Drop factors and calculating intravenous flow rates, Using a volumetric intravenous controller and a mini infuser syringe pump, The types of intravenous solutions and their indications: Hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic, The administration of blood and blood products, Applying the principles of safety and infection control to intravenous therapy, Modifying intravenous therapy for the pediatric and elderly populations, Performing venipuncture and inserting an intravenous catheter, Applying the nursing process to intravenous therapy and the administration of blood and blood products. 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