Fate: De… The sides of the circular turrets were 8 inches thick. It angled inwards for 17 feet (5.2 m) at each end, thinning to 8 inches (203 mm), to provide protection against raking fire. The fact that the Cuban government wanted the wreck removed from Havana harbor might also have played a role: it at least offered the opportunity to examine the wreck in greater detail than had been possible in 1898, while simultaneously obliging the now-independent Cubans. see Spanish-American War The explosion came during escalating tensions between the United States and Spain regarding Spain’s maladministration of Cuba, one of its last colonial possessions, and harsh suppression of the island’s independence movement. Pyrites were used to strike sparks to ignite gunpowder in wheellock guns, for example. The six-pounders located in the bow were positioned more forward than the pair mounted aft which necessitated the far aft single six-pounder. Between the proceedings and the findings, there was what Wegner calls, "a broad gap", where the court "left no record of the reasoning that carried it from the often-inconsistent witnesses to [its] conclusion." On 10 April 1897, Captain Charles Dwight Sigsbee relieved Captain Crowninshield as commander of Maine.[46]. [30], Maine's main armament consisted of four 10-inch (254 mm)/30 caliber Mark II guns, which had a maximum elevation of 15° and could depress to −3°. This was a flaw she shared with Texas. [43] Homestead was, what author Paul Krause calls, "the last union stronghold in the steel mills of the Pittsburgh district." The bodies of its crew were then removed to the armored cruiser North Carolina for repatriation. [69] Wegner claims that technical opinion among the Geographic team was divided between its younger members, who focused on computer modeling results, and its older ones, who weighed their inspection of photos of the wreck with their own experience. The team also located a boiler nearby, and a debris field of coal. It was 180 feet (54.9 m) long and covered the machinery spaces and the 10-inch magazines. [79], In the 2001 book Theodore Roosevelt, the U.S. Navy and the Spanish–American War, Wegner revisits the Rickover investigation and offers additional details. "[53] Commodore George Dewey, Commander of the Asiatic Squadron, "feared at first that she had been destroyed by the Spanish, which of course meant war, and I was getting ready for it when a later dispatch said it was an accident. (1979). [16] She was divided into 214 watertight compartments. This singularly beautiful second-class armored battleship was commissioned in 1895. In 1898 she was tragically lost in an explosion in Havana, becoming the spark that started the Spanish-American War. [17] They could also be loaded at any angle of train; initially the main guns of Texas, by comparison, with external rammers, could be loaded only when trained on the centerline or directly abeam, a common feature in battleships built before 1890. This investigation, done to commemorate the centennial of the sinking of USS Maine, was based on computer modeling, a technique unavailable for previous investigations. Maine was a United States Navy ship that sank in Havana Harbor in February 1898, contributing to the outbreak of the Spanish–American War in April. USS Maine (BB-69) the third Montana -class battleship planned for construction. "[58], The World, while overall not as lurid or shrill in tone as the Journal, nevertheless indulged in similar theatrics, insisting continually that Maine had been bombed or mined. Not long afterwards, a reporter wrote for Marine Engineer and Naval Architect magazine, "it cannot be denied that the navy of the United States is making rapid strides towards taking a credible position among the navies of the world, and the launch of the new armoured battleship Maine from the Brooklyn Navy Yard ... has added a most powerful unit to the United States fleet of turret ships. At the time she was laid down, armored cruisers such as Maine were intended to serve as small battleships on overseas service and were built with heavy belt armor. [10] The winning design for Texas was from a British designer, William John, who was working for the Barrow Shipbuilding Company at that time. Moreover, since several of the members of the 1910 board would be certified engineers, they would be better qualified to evaluate their findings than the line officers of the 1898 board had been. Moreover, projecting naval force abroad through the use of battleships ran counter to the government policy of isolationism. On 16 March, the Maine was towed four miles from the Cuban coast by Osceola, escorted by North Carolina and the light cruiser Birmingham. The memorial includes the ship's main mast. She exploded and sank on the evening of 15 February 1898, killing three-quarters of her crew. Smokeless powder allowed a decrease in gun size, with an increase in power and efficiency. [89], Eliades Acosta was the head of the Cuban Communist Party's Committee on Culture and a former director of the José Martí National Library in Havana. [35], The anti-torpedo boat armament consisted of seven 57-millimeter (2.2 in) Driggs-Schroeder six-pounder guns mounted on the superstructure deck. [99][100] During the salvage, remains of 66 more were found, of whom only one, Harry J. Keys (an engineering officer), was identified and returned to his home town; the rest were reburied at Arlington Cemetery, making a total of 229 buried there. John J. Pershing. This process can result from the disruption caused by mining from the seams, which exposes the sulfides in the ore to air and water. He frequently cited various naval officers saying that the explosion could not have been an on-board accident. Also, cross-deck firing damaged her deck and superstructure significantly due to the vacuum from passing shells. [36] The lighter armament comprised four each 37-millimeter (1.5 in) Hotchkiss and Driggs-Schroeder one-pounder guns. In 1976, Admiral Hyman G. Rickover commissioned a private investigation into the explosion, and the National Geographic Society did an investigation in 1999, using computer simulations. [11][34], The six 6-inch (152 mm)/30 caliber Mark 3 guns were mounted in casemates in the hull, two each at the bow and stern and the last two amidships. From shop MrsCampbells. [27], Maine was designed initially with a three-mast barque rig for auxiliary propulsion, in case of engine failure and to aid long-range cruising. [9], The winning design for Maine was from Theodore D. Wilson, who served as chief constructor for C & R and was a member on the Naval Advisory Board in 1881. The 10" guns were initially to be mounted in open barbettes (the C & R proposal blueprint shows them as such). [106] The Communist government then added its own inscription blaming "imperialist voracity in its eagerness to seize the island of Cuba" for Maine's sinking. Allen, Thomas B. ed. Such was the revolutionary British design that all preceding warships came to be known as "pre-dreadnoughts" of which USS Maine was one. They concluded that the photos showed "no plausible evidence of penetration from the outside," and they believed that the explosion originated inside the ship. [3] Far more advanced vessels were either in service or nearing completion that year. Both ships had two gun turrets staggered en échelon, and full masts were omitted due to the increased reliability of steam engines. Congress did not demand a new investigation into the sinking at that time. One of the ship's anchors was donated to the city of Reading, Pennsylvania. The Spanish inquiry, conducted by Del Peral and De Salas, collected evidence from officers of naval artillery, who had examined the remains of the Maine. The Maine-class of three battleships was authorized by Congress on 4 May 1898, 8 days after the start of the Spanish-American War. USS Maine Battleship NAVY History Flag Span Ameri War Military SILK Havana USN, $24.95 [17] This was a very low capacity for a ship of Maine's rating, which limited her time at sea and her ability to run at flank speed, when coal consumption increased dramatically. Articles needing page number citations from September 2015, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, World War I battleships of the United States, List of battleships of the United States Navy, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/armor.htm, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Maine-class_battleship?oldid=2846555, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. Ships in class: 1 5. Officers and Crew of the USS Maine Feburary 15, 1898. An investigation by Admiral Hyman Rickover in 1974 agreed with the coal fire hypothesis. This equipment did not arrive until 1889, pushing back Bethlehem's timetable. The planned 13-inch 35 caliber guns were replaced by a smaller but more powerful 12-inch 40 caliber gun, which used the new and more efficient smokeless powder. Within a decade, this role had changed to commerce raiding, for which fast, long-range vessels, with only limited armor protection, were needed. National Geographic reported that "a fire in the coal bunker could have generated sufficient heat to touch off an explosion in the adjacent magazine [but] on the other hand, computer analysis also shows that even a small, handmade mine could have penetrated the ship's hull and set off explosions within". Waking up President McKinley to break the news, Commander Francis W. Dickins referred to it as an "accident. The ten-inch guns fired a 510 pounds (231 kg) shell at a muzzle velocity of 2,000 feet per second (610 m/s) to a range of 20,000 yards (18,000 m) at maximum elevation. The site was explored with an ROV. Cubans See an American Plot Continuing to This Day", "Михаил Хазин: "Через три года большинство наших олигархов разорятся, "U.S. Military Wanted to Provoke War With Cuba", "Declassified Papers Show Anti-Castro Ideas Proposed to Kennedy", "The Second Sinking Of The 'Maine' | AMERICAN HERITAGE", "The First Funeral of the Crew of the Battleship MAINE", "U.S.S. 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